Class Blog Cameo #2

This week we learned about the dissection of cats.  We had to read a packet in preparation of the cat dissection we will be doing later on in the semester.  The packet was about the muscle and skeletal system of cats.  The different muscles work together to get the cat to move, eat, walk, etc.  The skeletal system of the cat supports the animal and gives it a backbone. The muscular system gives the cat strength to stand up on its own and move. Working together, the cat is able to move freely, jump, run, play, etc. I liked reading this article because it explained thoroughly the anatomy of a cat and how the muscles and bones collaborated to help the cat survive and live.  There are different types of muscles that have different “jobs” to do.  An example of one of these muscles is the strap muscle.  This muscle is a part of the neck and helps us, and cats/other animals, to move.

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The packet gave us instructions for the lab.  It wrote about how we have to skin the cat, what we do, etc.  We have to dissect the muscles and learn about the muscles and the muscle fibers.  During the lab, we go through the different types of muscles.  For example, the neck and back muscles.  There were different diagrams of the different systems of the cat anatomy.  Respitory and digestive systems were some of these.

We also learned about ACL tears in women.  An ACL can be torn by landing wrong, or stopping short and turning.  Women are more likely to tear their ACL’s because of how we land, on the balls of our feet.  This can happen because of a contact sport, but it mainly happens in non-contact sports.  To treat an ACL tear, you have to go though surgery, and stay off of that leg for months.  After the surgery, and resting your leg, you have to go through physical therapy.  Therapy can last from six to twelve months.

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While learning about ACL tears, we met with Coach Christina.  We sat in her training room during class and she explained parts of the knee.  She went over the article we were supposed to read to prepare for that class.   She would ask questions about the paper, and we would call out the answer.  Coach Christina has an model of the knee, with ligaments, bones, and muscles, etc.  She passed around the model and we got to lay with it to see how it bends and moves.  I really liked this class because we got a hands on experience of the knee.  I liked the model because I learned more about the knee that way.


Semester 2 Dietary Project

In this project, my class and I learned about eating healthily and taking care of our bodies.  We touched on the topics of eating disorders too!  I learned how important it is to eat fruits and vegetables and to balance your meals.  I plan on focusing on keeping my body healthy and ready for swim.  At some practices I realized I was tired and not feeling well, and that was because I was not eating healthy foods.  I wasn’t taking care of my body, which backfired.  My swim times went up, and I wasn’t performing my best.  Since then, I have started eating more foods that are healthy and good for your body.

In my diet, I had 317.5 grams of fats, 252 grams of proteins, and 605.8 grams of carbohydrates.  These amounts can differ between people.  The difference happens because not everyone eats the same about of food and the same types of food.   Every day you need to eat something from each food group.  For fruits and vegetables, you have to eat 3 to 5 cups of each.  For grains its 6 ounces, and 46 grams of protein foods.  2 to 3 servings of dairy and 5 teaspoons of oil.  Some examples of foods in these food groups are (in order of the groups listed above): pineapple, carrots, cereal, ribs, milk, and coconut oil.

I plan on eating better and healthier starting now to help my body grow correctly.  I will improve my eating habits, and eat at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, not snacking all the time, or eating one meal a day.  I will eat the proper amount of food and not over eat to the point where I cannot even move.  My eating habits will improve, and so will my health.




Chicken Wing Lab

Last week my class and I watched a video of someone dissecting a chicken wing.  We answered questions about the video and another website, which was really cool because you could control the chicken wing picture with your computer mouse.  Its so interesting because we learned about the biceps and triceps in a chicken wing, and how they work together.  If you pull on the bicep, the wing straightens out, but if you pull on the tricep it bends.  I liked this lab because we got to watch someone do it, instead of doing it ourselves.

List of Procedures:

  1.  Make sure you are wearing all of your safety equipment.
  2. Dry off the chicken wing because the moisture can hurt the results of the lab.
  3. Cut away the skin of the chicken. (Starting at the inner wing of the chicken, to the tip.)
  4. Under the skin is a layer of fat, blot the fat dry because it makes the chicken greasy.
  5. Remove the muscles and tendons from the chicken wing.
  6. Break one of the bones of the chicken wing.
  7. Look at the cartilage. (in bone)
  8. Clean up the place you were working at.


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Here are the questions (and answers) to the lab:

  1. What is the very first step in dissecting the chicken wing?

The first step in dissecting the chicken wing is to make sure you are wearing all of your safety equipment.  

  1. What happens when you pull on the triceps muscle?

When you pull of the triceps muscle, the chicken wing points down.  

  1. What is an extensor?

An extensor is a muscle that can bend and straighten a limb (arm, leg)

  1. What happens when you pull on the biceps muscle?

When you pull on the biceps muscle, the chicken wing moves up, extending the wing.    

  1. What is a flexor?

A flexor is a muscle that bends a limb (arm, leg)

  1. What type of tissue makes up the “meat” of a chicken?

Fat, muscle, skin, biceps and triceps make up the “meat” of a chicken.  

  1. What is the function of ligaments?

Ligaments provide stability and strength in the joints of the human body.  

  1. What is the function of tendons?

Tendons connect tissue to bone.  It makes it possible for us to move, walk, etc.  

  1. What is the function of the cartilage found at a joint?

The function of cartilage found at a joint is to provide support and to be able to move the joint.  

  1. There is a yellowish tissue clumped together beneath the skin of the chicken wing. This is fat tissue, made of fat cells. What are two functions of this fat?

The fat makes the skin greasy and helps to protect the bone.  

  1. Based on your observations, EXPLAIN how and why muscles work in “opposing pairs” to move bones.

Muscles work together to move our limbs, to walk.  Muscles connect to bones which push and move our bodies.  

Concussion In Youth Sports

My friend Mia, and I have been trying to decide what we should write about to help solve concussion ratings.  We decided that a concussions needed to be spoken about.  Soccer is a sport where many of the players receive concussions throughout the game.  It is very important for players of any game to have a basic knowledge of concussions and what they can do to someone.  Heading the ball, running into other players, and falling through out a game can cause concussions.

Concussions happen when someone induces a blow to the head.  During sports, a participant needs to know the hazards of concussions and to be safe throughout the game.  If a player gets hit in the head, they need to speak up and get help.  They could have a concussion or another type of head injury.  The player should be assessed in the field or wherever the game or practice is held.  The games should always have a doctor or a Physical Therapist (PT) on the field.  If the player has a concussion, they should have physical and mental rest.

There are a few ways to stop concussions or to low the times of getting a concussion.  The coaches should make plays for the safety of the players.  Although the coach cannot expect what the other team is going to do, they should try their hardest to keep the safety of the player in their minds.  Mia and I decided to make a flyer informing people on the hazards of concussions.  We handed them out to people and asked them to read it and tell us their opinions on the flyer.  Here is our flyer:


We asked our friends what they thought of the flyer, and they said that they thought it was very informative.  Audrey explained that she wished her friends who had concussions knew to not go back to school too early because it set them back mentally for months.  Sam said how she liked that we listed the symptoms and the treatments, she had no idea what either of those were.  Janelle told us that she liked how we wrote about what someone should do if they think they have a concussion.  She said how her friends thought they had a concussion, and didn’t say anything until it got really bad.  My friend Anna said that she thought it was interesting to learn that 33% of concussions happen at practice because that means that its their teammates that are hurting them where they should feel their safest playing.  Carissa said she thought it was informative and would know what to do if her friends got a concussion.

Left to Right:  Audrey, Sam, Janelle

Left to Right:  Anna, Carissa

Neurotransmitter Lab

Background of the Lab:

The purpose of this lab was to learn about relationships between muscles in the human body, even though we mainly focused on the arm muscles.  Agonist Muscles cause movement by contracting.  Antagonist Muscles oppose the agonist muscles movement.  your brain sends signals down your spinal cord to your arms and legs so we can move.  Our bodies use electrical and chemical signals to control our body movements.  There are over 600 skeletal muscles in our bodies.  Most muscles work in pairs to perform certain functions.  Pulling your arm towards your shoulder is called “flexion” and stretching out your arm is called “extension”.


  1.  Place 2 of the electrodes on your biceps and 2 electrodes on your triceps.  1 electrode goes on the back of your hand.
  2. Connect the alligator clips to the electrodes on your arm and hand.
  3. Plug in the cords to the alligator clips into the machine.
  4. Connect the blue cable to the machine and to your laptop or iPhone.
  5. Open the software “config”
  6. Start doing exercises and workouts with your arms.  For example, push ups, waving, arm wrestle, life up book, high five, etc.


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This picture was taken when I was flexing my muscles.
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This picture was taken when I was doing table pushups.  
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This picture was taken when I was waving.  


Sensory Lab with Mia

Hi!  Last class my class did a lab in partners.  We were testing the nerve sensitivity receptors on our fingertips, back of our hands, and forearms.  My partner, Mia, and I believed that our fingertips would be the most sensitive, and our forearms would be least sensitive.  We figured out this information by using paper clips and rulers.  Here are the step below:

  1. Get paper clip and ruler.
  2. Pick one partner to go first.
  3. Make the ends of the paper clip 2 cm apart.
  4. Partner closes eyes, and you touch the body part (fingertip, back of hand, forearm) 10x total.  Switch between using one end of the paperclip and two, do not let partner know the order of the sides.  Partner tells you if they felt one or two touches and you log in what they felt into the table.
  5. Change 2cm to 1.5cm, put what the partner feels in the table.
  6. Change 1.5cm to 1cm, put what the partner feels in the table.
  7. Change 1cm to 0.5cm, put what partner feels in the table.
  8. Change 0.5 to 0.3, put what partner feels in table.


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The shortest distance at which I could detect two ends of the clip at least 3 times was:

Back of hand: 0.3

Fingertip: 0.3

Forearm: 0.3


The shortest distance at which my partner could detect two ends of the clip at least 3 times was:

Back of hand: 0.3

Fingertip: 0.3

Forearm: 0.5

  1. Do your results support the prediction you made in Pre-Lab Question 1 about which area of skin would have the highest density of sense receptors? Explain.

    I had said that the fingertip would be the most sensitive out of the 3, and I was correct. Our hands touch things the most, so they would be the most sensitive. We can feel if something is hot or cold with our hands.

  2. Why do you think that humans have a higher density of receptors for touch in some areas of skin than in other areas?
    I believe that we have high density and low density of nerve receptors in different areas because of how we touch things. We would need high density nerve receptors in our hands because we touch things the most there. Our forearms would not need a high amount of nerve receptors because we do not use our arms to touch things.
  3. Do your results and those of your partner support the prediction you made in Pre- Lab Question 3? Explain.
    I believed that the nerve receptors in our bodies would be the same with everyone. I realized that I have much less nerve receptors than my partner. I couldn’t tell some of the pokes from one or two.
  4. What factors could account for variation in sensitivity to touch from one person to another?
    The reasons that we all do not have the same amount of nerve receptors is because of our skin types, our nationalities, and our genders.
  5. How might activities such as playing a guitar, laying bricks, preparing food, or playing video games affect a person’s sensitivity to touch?
    Doing too much of one thing can damage the persons sensitivity in their hands. I used to play guitar and my finger tips are not as sensitive as they use to be.
  6. The phrase thick skinned is used to describe people who are not easily affected by other people’s criticisms. Relate this meaning of thick skinned to how areas of thickened skin could affect a person’s sense of touch.
    Being thick skinned can affect a persons sense of touch because their nerve receptors are below the skin. If the skin is too thick, the nerve receptors cannot do their job.
  7. Automobile dashboards have many control knobs and buttons. Drivers might be involved in fewer accidents if they did not have to look at these controls to adjust the temperature or change the station on the radio. What could dashboard designers do to make it easier for drivers to keep their eyes on the road?
    Each dashboard has buttons and knobs. If the dashboards took the outline of the symbol and popped it up, the person could feel for what they were looking for. If the person was looking for the seat warmer, there would be a shape of a seat on a button for them to feel. Once they find the button, they press it.

The Juice Diet

What is the juice diet? Honestly, I was thinking of participating in this diet to lose weight, even before my Sports Medicine class was talking about diets. This diet is when you only drink juice, to cleanse and detox your system. To do this diet, you have to juice fruits and vegetables, and then drink them. A combination of fruits and vegetables juiced every day for every meal was said to help you lose weight.

On the MyPlate website, it says that each meal should contain: fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, dairy, and oils. The juice diet has fruits, vegetables, and sometimes protein and dairy. The fruit and vegetables are explainable, they’re what the juice is made up of. But, in some vegetables (kale, broccoli, etc.) there is protein. Protein is also found in some fruits, so you can have your protein in your meal. To get dairy in your juice diet, you could slip in some yogurt or some milk, to make it thicker, more like a smoothie.

I have read many articles of people talking about how they were satisfied by their juice diet, and how making and drinking their meals became “second nature”. People spoke about how they dropped pants sizes, got compliments on their weight loss, and felt healthier. For me, I do not think that this would satisfy all of my needs. I think if I were to drink a juice, plus had a smaller meal, I would be content. The juice would not be sufficient enough for me.

To participate in this diet, you will have to save time for yourself, about 15 minutes for every meal (3) to prepare your fruits and veggies for the juice. You would need to spend time preparing the food plus going out and buying them. Fruits and vegetables are relatively expensive. To go on this diet, you will have to be able to spend a lot of money on the components. You will also need a juicer.

The only “special foods” involved in this fad diet, would be fruits and vegetables, and maybe the occasional milk and yogurt. Out of the articles I have read, I found that you do not have to exercise while juicing. The only thing you have to do is to juice and to keep to it.

Weight loss is promised. People wrote about how they lost 12 pounds in one week, other people say how they have lost over 100 after a few months. This juice cleanse seems to help drop weight, and to drop it fast. This diet is interesting, and something I would love to try. You get all the nutrients that you need, and you lose weight. You stop eating the fatty meals and focus on the juice.